Cappadocia, (meaning "Land of Beautiful Horses" in Persian language). The region 60 million years ago; Erciyes, Hasan Mountain and Güllü Dag by the soft layers of lava and ashes formed by millions of years of abrasion by the rain and wind emerged.
The human settlement dates back to the Paleolithic period. The lands inhabited by the Hittites became one of the most important centers of Christianity in later periods. The houses and churches carved into the rocks have made the region a huge refuge for Christians.
Cappadocia region is a place where nature and history are integrated. While geographical events constitute the fairy chimneys, in the historical process, people have carved houses, churches into these fairy chimneys and have decorated them with frescoes and carried the traces of thousands of years of civilizations to the present day. The written history of Cappadocia, where human settlements date back to the Paleolithic period, begins with the Hittites. Cappadocia is one of the important intersections of the Silk Road, which has hosted trade colonies throughout history and established a commercial and social bridge between countries.
XII BC. century with the collapse of the Hittite Empire in the region begins a dark period. During this period, the late Hittite kings with Assyrian and Phrygian influences dominated the region. These Kingdoms VI. century until the Persian occupation. The name of Cappadocia used today means "Land of Beautiful Horses" in Persian language. In 332 BC Alexander the Great defeated the Persians, but in Cappadocia faced great resistance. During this period, the Kingdom of Cappadocia was founded. III. YY. Towards the end of the Roman power began to be felt in the region. In the middle of the 1st century BC, the Cappadocian Kings were appointed and deposed with the power of the Roman generals. When the last king of Cappadocia died in 17 AD, the region became a province of Rome.
MS III. In the 19th century, Christians came to Cappadocia and the region became a center of education and thought for them. Between 303 and 308, the pressure on Christians increased. But Cappadocia is an ideal place to avoid oppression and to spread Christian doctrine. Deep valleys and shelters carved from volcanic soft rocks provide a safe area for Roman soldiers.
IV. century, later called the "Fathers of Cappadocia" is the period of people. But the importance of the region, III. Leon's culmination with the ban on icons. In the face of this situation, some pro-icon people begin to seek refuge in the region. Iconoclasm movement lasts more than a hundred years (726-843). Although several Cappadocian churches were influenced by Iconoclasm during this period, those who favored the icon could easily worship here. Cappadocia monasteries developed during this period.
Again during these periods, Arab raids started in the Christian regions of Anatolia from Armenia to Cappadocia. People who flee from these raids cause the churches in the region to change their style. XI. and XII. century Cappadocia passes into the hands of the Seljuks. During this and subsequent Ottoman times, the region had a smooth period. The last Christians in the region left Cappadocia during the 1924-26 exchange, leaving beautiful examples of architecture behind them.